Is it Ever Right to Deceive?
How are we to understand the Ninth Commandment?
I have written before about deception and how Scripture warns about how easy it is to be deceived, and how we all must be careful that we do not fall into deception. But here I have something different in mind. And it involves a long-standing biblical, theological and philosophical question: Is it ever morally right to seek to deceive another person, at least for a good end?
Some Christians believe that we can never do this, simply because it is a violation of the Ninth Commandment – end of story. As the KJV puts it in Exodus 20:16 (see also Deuteronomy 5:20): “Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour.”
Others believe that there can indeed be cases of morally licit lies or deception to bring about greater good. One obvious biblical example used here would be that of Rahab the harlot who lied to the king of Jericho to protect the Israelite spies (Joshua 2 and 6). She is commended in Hebrews 11:31 as one of the great champions of faith.
The issue of whether there can be a hierarchy in moral absolutes is a rather large discussion, and would be the backdrop to an issue like this. While I cannot here get into all this in detail, this view (known as graded absolutism) states that when there is a conflict between two absolutes, obligation to a lesser duty may be exempted in order to obey a higher duty. Thus for Rahab the duty to tell truth was superseded by the duty to protect life – in this case, to protect God’s people.
It is a very big debate and a whole lot more can be said about it. I will add further thoughts on this in a moment, but let me first offer the reason as to why this topic is now of interest to me. As many of you will know by now, I have been cancelled by Facebook. My entire output there has been taken down, and it looks like I will not be seen there anymore.
A number of folks have suggested that a common way to proceed here is to just submit another name and set up a new account. It happens all the time. I said that while this was possible, having an altered name might make it hard for others to find me, or know who I am.
One thoughtful and well-meaning person offered this comment to that particular discussion: “Surely there’s some sort of perverse and dangerous irony about trying to deceive FaceBook in order to be able to broadcast the truth? My advice, for what it’s worth – don’t go there! God will make sure that the people that need them will find your messages.”
My reply to this person was as follows:
Thanks ****. That was a suggestion made by others of course. And while I have no plans at this point to try to get back on to FB with a slightly altered name (something millions of people do as a matter of course in all sorts of areas to simply protect themselves and their identity, and do not see it as necessarily being about ‘deceiving’ anyone), if I were to head down that path, I would recognise that standing against evil often can involve morally licit subterfuge. Simply think of Rahab sheltering the Israelite spies for example, or Corrie ten Boom hiding the Jews from the Nazis in her home. Both were rightly praised for their actions which involved ‘deception’. While the situation here is of course a bit different, the idea of not recklessly submitting to evil is still valid it seems to me.
And while some folks will still be able to find my articles, I have now lost a main means by which they used to be able to do so. And soon enough this website may well be removed by those with evil agendas. We need not be fatalists here, but work to promote truth in the public arena as best we can. Yes, we trust God, but we also seek to be “wise as serpents, and harmless as doves” as Jesus put it. But thanks for your thoughts. Others may have some thoughts on this matter as well.
Because this person’s comment raised some important issues, it is worth looking at further. In doing so I could appeal to philosophers, ethicists and theologians, and I could drag out my commentaries that cover the story of Rahab, and so on. But here I will mainly rely on some books on the Ten Commandments that I have pulled from my shelves.
But first, let me say – as most commentators remind us – that the original specific setting of the commandment is to give truthful testimony in a court of law. But it obviously has to do with the broader matter of not telling lies in general. But questions arise. Just what is a lie or a falsehood? And what role if any does motivation and intent play in this?
An obvious example would be: Your wife tries on a new dress and asks, “Do I look good in this?” Most husbands will say, “You look great dear.” They may well have some misgivings, but saying encouraging words seems the better path to take than offering various critiques at this point! Such “white lies” – if they really are lies – are told all the time, and not with malicious intent, but usually with quite good motivation.
And of course deception plays a crucial role in things like warfare. Trying to deceive the enemy as to your position, your intentions, your capabilities, your movements, etc., is a basic part of military strategy. And if such deceptions helped the Allies in defeating Hitler for example, most folks would argue that they were morally justifiable.
In his important volume The Doctrine of the Christian Life John Frame has a lengthy discussion about such matters. As to his definition of a lie, he says it is “a word or act that intentionally deceives a neighbor in order to hurt him. It is false witness against a neighbor.” He also discusses what a lie is not:
A lie is not simply an untrue statement. A mistake is not a lie. A parable is not a lie, even though it may describe events that did not happen historically. A fictional story is not a lie unless the author pretends it is factual.… A hyperbolic statement (e.g., “It took me forever to get here”) is not a lie, but a regular linguistic convention. The same is true for the flatteries that are part of normal social discourse…. In these ways and others, statements that are literally untrue may be means of communicating truth, and nobody would claim that they are lies. In games (whether board games or athletic contests) strategy often dictates deception. Everyone understands this and participates with that understanding….
But the issue of deception – be it by withholding information or seeking to mislead others for a greater good – is certainly a complex matter. In Al Mohler’s 2009 book on the Ten Commandments, Words From the Fire, he has a section called “What About Deception?” in his discussion of this commandment. He begins:
Indeed, this is an old question. What about the Hebrew midwives? What about Rahab the harlot (Joshua 2)? Augustine said, when forced into such a situation, one should respond with silence. Certainly, the Bible depicts deception. In fact, God actually commands deception at some points. In Joshua 8:1 and 2 Samuel 5:22 God commands Israel in its military operations to deceive.
You can lie in more than one way. As theologian Charles Hodge said, you lie by leaving the lights on in your home as if you are there so that no robber will enter. By the way, Hodge said that is an advisable lie. In other words, it is not the kind of lie envisioned by the Ninth Commandment.
He goes on to say that this is not an easy matter, and great care is needed. It is too easy to justify lying for selfish reasons. But is deception always amiss? He continues: “When an elderly man is facing his last days, do you tell him just how awful his physical predicament is? Does the doctor always owe the patient the absolute truth? Or, if that is settled as a matter of medical ethics, do family members owe each other the truth in that situation?”
In his book on the Ten Commandments Michael Horton says this:
Martin Luther, following Augustine, distinguished between three classes of lies: the humorous, the helpful, and the harmful. The humorous lie was nothing more than a joke, such as “Two men were walking down the street and one said to another . . .” when the conversation never took place in reality. Actors, especially good ones, can be said to deceive their audiences by their performances. But of course, these are not sinful “lies,” since they are not meant to be taken seriously as truth. The second class, the helpful lie, is told for the benefit of one’s neighbor. Rahab’s lie fits into this category. Other examples could be cited from 2 Samuel 15:34 and 17:20. Luther said, “Therefore, it is improperly called a lie. It is rather a virtue and remarkable prudence by which the fury of Satan is hindered, and the honor, life, and interests of others are served as well….
Frame, in his discussion, lists 16 such biblical cases “in which someone misleads an enemy, without incurring any condemnation, and sometimes even being commended.” He also cites Hodge and goes on to say this:
In Hodge’s view, we are not obligated to tell the truth in certain specifically defined relationships and situations. He mentions military strategy, for example, as one area in which there is no such obligation: we are not required to tell the truth to the enemy. Just as the sixth commandment does not rule out all killing, but forces us to look elsewhere in Scripture to find out what killing is legitimate, so the ninth commandment requires us to look elsewhere to determine when we are and are not obligated to tell the truth.
That is the line often used by theologians and ethicists when discussions about things like deceiving the Nazis are raised. In those sorts of situations people cease to have the right to the truth. It is argued that those with clearly evil aims and intentions (to take innocent life, eg.) have forfeited the right to receive truth. Thus when the Gestapo knocked on doors asking folks if they were harbouring Jews, people like ten Boom were not morally obliged to tell them.
As mentioned, Christians can and do differ here. Some argue that in certain situations these are not lies. But others argue that while they may be justified, they are nonetheless still lies. That debate will not here be settled. But the point is, there can indeed be a place for deception in various circumstances, and it is not always morally wrong to deceive.
One last word on all this. As to all the biblical examples of when folks withheld truth or used deception, but were not condemned for doing so, and whether this is sinful or not, Philip Graham Ryken says this in his book Written In Stone:
The Bible does not condemn these falsehoods. However, each of them was told to prevent evil men from committing even greater sins, such as murder. But we should not use these extreme cases to justify falsehood when we are in a tight spot or when we think the end justifies our means. Even in those rare cases when a lie seems necessary to protect others, it is still wrong in itself.
17 Replies to “Is it Ever Right to Deceive?”
God is always in control, and he is doing are mighty shaking right now. Could it be that he has something else planned for you to do right now? As the old saying goes “where are door closes, there is always are window that opens”. You seem to be are person who always puts his thoughts on paper, maybe it is time to put them into action. Joshua’s army is on the march! Our Lord is far from finished with us yet.
Thanks. Ingrid. Of course what matters is doing what God has called us to do. I have sought to do that here over the past 32 years. And it is not just writing. I have been fully involved in lobbying, activism, teaching, speaking, preaching, warning, motivating, alerting, and working with others in all this. Most folks might call that action. So I will keep doing what I have been doing, until a change of orders comes.
What category would Jacobs lie in deceiving his father to receive the blessing come under?
Good question Annette. Frame does not mention that episode in his list of 16, nor does he mention Abraham fibbing about Sarah, saying he was his sister (she was however his half-sister). But in both cases God used these two men as part of his redemptive purposes, leading to the Messiah. How God can providently work with fallen human beings and their sinful choices to achieve his purposes is always something of a mystery.
The 9th commandment is specific: ‘Thou shalt not bear false witness against thy neighbour’.
In this, Rahab the harlot did not bear witness against her neighbour but rather – did bear false witness FOR her neighbour.
The difference between For and AGAINST is pivotal for reasons that ‘against’ is harmful to your neighbour and ‘FOR’ is for their benefit. Thus, the issue as I see it is whether the ‘false witness’ is to do harm or good – if for good then the 9th commandment is not breached.
I think you should just wait till something happens to Facebook – with all the erasing it has done, like Twitter it will get a bad name and people will choose not to use it anymore but use other platforms.
Your article also brought Jacob’s deception to mind and I was wondering how God would have done it differently seeing Isaac had made up his mind to give Esau the blessing without asking and waiting for God’s reply. God looks at the Heart and knew Jacob was the one to carry on the Abrahamic blessing to the world. If Esau had been killed then Jacob would have gotten the blessing. Also, Esau had sold his birthright to Jacob before this so he should have made it known to Isaac his father that he now was entitled to the birthright. I think God lets men work out their own ways sometimes as long as it coincides with His Will in the long run.
Another incident that comes to mind is the parable that Jesus told about the unjust steward in Luke 16:1-13. Again, I think God looks at the heart as the debtors to the rich lord were helped as well as the unjust steward.
Great discussion Bill.
I have been wondering about this lately.
I came across your name and work through Townhall.com contributor Michael Brown. This piece seemed especially relevant to me at this point in my life. I have been struggling spiritually with how to respond to some of the government dictates issued here in the States. I found your words to be insightful and they added some clarity to Biblical instructions. Thank you. Btw, have you considered joining another social media platform such as Gab. The CEO and creator of Gab is a Christian and you would be welcomed there.
Many thanks Stacie. Glad the piece was of some help. And yes, I am on Gab, MeWe and Parler. Blessings.
Thanks for this deeper exploration of the topic, Bill. Very helpful, and of course challenging too. It’s given me plenty to “chew on”. I hope it’s also been beneficial to you. And to others.
Does this dress look good on me is not the dangerous one as it is quite subjective the real hard on is does this make my butt look big?? Both she and the person she asks knows it does, admit it ladies YOU KNOW, but he is forced to say it doesn’t to please her feelings or ego, sometimes even saying it actually makes your butt look smaller. Hurt feelings/egos shouldn’t be justification biblically should they???
Seriously though we must be careful with this or we can end up accustom to lying then that get to the point where people don’t even know what the truth is when they hear it. In fact it can get so bad they insist the truth is a lie. Lying should be the exception and as rare as possible.
Yes Paul as was said by myself and others in my article, care is needed here. There can be a place for licit subterfuge, but caution is always needed.
Thanks for reminding Christians about the moral dilemmas they have experienced in their everyday life. Most people don’t know my parents’ legal first name, and I’ve decided not to use my legal first name on any social media because the thought police decided to cancel Christian beliefs and values. Dr Jereth Kok lost his job as a GP because he had his medical registration cancelled for posting comments on your site & writing an article in Eternity. The thought police disagreed with his Christian value in telling the truth as they don’t believe there is a real difference between the sexes. The normal testosterone level for males isn’t the same as the normal testosterone level for females and there isn’t any “other” normal testosterone level, but the thought police don’t want the public to know this truth.
When I was a police officer we found it necessary to deceive criminals who might inquire as to our identity or purpose. It would be impossible to carry out our responsibilities otherwise.
In these cases we saw that there was a higher ethic at hand, whether to punish evil [e.g., by gaining evidence against drug traffickers and other ne’er-do-wells] or to not lie. The former obviously trumps the latter.
Thanks for this Bill.
So to clarify, virtue ethics for a Christian is biblically based for the greater good.
Correct me if I’m wrong please.
Thanks Jodie. Biblical ethics is a huge topic filing entire libraries, so just a little comment in reply will not be too helpful here. Nonetheless, the short version goes something like this: The person and character of God is the foundation of all ethics – of what is right and wrong. He has revealed his moral standards to us, as in the Ten Commandments. Such moral absolutes sometimes need to be teased out for application to modern situations. The Bible nowhere speaks about internet porn or genetic engineering for example. But the general moral truths revealed to us can be applied to these particular situations. And I mentioned in my article that it can seem at times that moral absolutes may clash, and one may need a hierarchical approach. Ultimately doing what is right is obeying God and giving him glory. And this may well result in achieving the greater good.