CultureWatch

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A review of Global Jihad. By Patrick Sookhdeo.

Nov 12, 2008

Isaac Publishing, 2007.

Everyone now knows about radical Muslim terrorists and their campaign of bloodshed and intimidation. In response, the West has declared war on terror, and military operations are underway, either covertly or openly, in order to bring this threat to an end.

Patrick Sookhdeo is well aware of the global terror campaign. But he is also aware that there is much more to this struggle than just suicide bombers. There are theological, political, moral and ideological issues as well. Thus this book is not entitled “Global Terror,” for that would give a misleading impression of what this battle is really all about. Terrorism is simply one facet of a multi-lateral approach to achieving Islamic supremacy around the world.

Sookhdeo is eminently qualified to speak on this subject. Indeed, he was born into a Muslim household in South America (although now he is a Christian residing in London). He has spent his life studying Islam and the jihadists. He is more than familiar with Islamic history, theology, culture and practice.

Image of Global Jihad: The future in the face of militant Islam
Global Jihad: The future in the face of militant Islam by Patrick Sookhdeo Amazon logo

In this substantial volume of nearly 700 pages, Sookhdeo examines how the global Islamic challenge is being manifest, and how it can be withstood. He looks primarily at the theology and beliefs of Islam, and argues that only a major reform of Islam itself can really turn things around.

While many are happy to believe that “Islam is peace,” the truth lies elsewhere. In fact, the radical Islamists are not some aberration to Islamic belief and practice, but are really an integral part of it. Many people nonetheless want to distinguish between Islamist terrorism and Islamic terrorism.

“However this is really a meaningless distinction,” says Sookhdeo. “Islamism is simply the essence of classical Islam, and violence and terror are found within both of them.” Although the major sources of Islam provide the inspiration for terror, that does not mean that all Muslims are terrorists. Most Muslims in fact reject the jihadists.

But if Islamist violence can be justified by, and found within, the main Islamic sources (the Koran, the hadith, the life and teachings of Muhammad, etc.), then only a major reform of Islam, and a new reinterpretation of it, can help to curb the violence.

Thus the war on terror is really just a small part of a much larger war, that is, the 1400-year-long war of Islamic expansionism. The pursuit of Islamic power and hegemony is what jihad is all about. The struggle for Islam includes not just violent military means, but all manner of other means as well.

Islam understands jihad to be a permanent struggle, one which will continue until all of Allah’s enemies are subsumed and sharia rules the earth. Until then, there can be no real peace. Sure, temporary peace can be negotiated when Islam is not in a position to achieve complete dominance. But whenever Islam becomes the ruling ideology of a country, then all non-Muslims must submit, or endure dhimmitude.

Dhimmis must submit to the demeaning regulations of Islam, including payment of the jizya (poll tax). Persecution of non-Muslims in Muslim lands is an ever-present reality, and more Christians are being killed today in Islamic lands than anywhere else. And many moderate Muslims are being killed by the Islamists as well.

Sookhdeo here offers extensive documentation and explanation of Islamic jihadist thought and practice. Countless Muslim thinkers, jurists, Imams, commentators and strategists are quoted here. He clearly makes the case that the ideology and aims of jihad are contained in the very heart and soul of Islam.

Meaty chapters explore various issues, such as the life and history of Muhammad; the nature of the Koran, the hadith and sharia; the Islamic understanding of peace; the theology of war and empire-building; and responses to Islamic terrorism.

Consider one chapter, on taqiyya. This is the Arabic term for deception or dissimulation. It has long been held by leading Muslim authorities that Muslims have a right to practice deception with non-Muslims if there is a conflict between faith and expediency.

This practice has especially served well Muslim apologists and evangelists who want to convince gullible Westerners that Islam is really a religion of peace. It is a regular practice of those who “expend much energy to convince non-Muslims that Islam is and has always been peaceful and tolerant”. This puts non-Muslims off guard, and prepares them for eventual Muslim rule and domination.

Sookhdeo has penned a number of previous works on Islam, but this is his magnum opus, at least for now. It is a gold mine of information, facts and figures on what is one of the greatest threats facing the free West today. It is only because of ignorance about the contents of this book – and others like it – that we are in such a predicament today.

We can no longer remain unaware about the threat that we face. Ignorance can no longer be an excuse. We must arm ourselves with truth, and with information. We must be aware of the Islamist enemy. As Sookhdeo says, “Ultimately to gain victory over the Islamists will require the exercise of the will and a right understanding of the situation.”

This volume certainly provides all the necessary information for understanding the nature of the war we are in. Whether we have the will and the guts to stay in the battle and see it through to the end is another matter altogether. But Sookhdeo’s volume is a must read for everyone – Muslim and non-Muslim alike.

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22 Responses to A review of Global Jihad. By Patrick Sookhdeo.

  • Dear Mr Muehlenberg, Having agreed with most of what you have said, i now say that there is already in existence a radical belief in Islam and that is Sufism. The moslems and non moslems would do well to read about the Sufi Qur’an where the Sufi masters such as Muhyiddin Ibni Arabi have taught, “the movement which is the existence of the universe is the movement of love”. This is only the tip of the iceberg of what Islamic Sufism is about. I represent the most opressed group in the whole world and i now must fight the evil of the “moslems” who are intoxicated by their ego to control and take over. I am not trying to convert or practice deception on anyone but i feel that i must now change the tide for my children so that no one will hate them as much as i am hated. I now must make it known and take over the mosques and media and fight these egotistical “moslems”. It is my battle. Thank you for letting me speak.
    Siti Khatijah.

  • The problem, Siti, is that if Sufiism comes from Mohammed, he in no way can be described as a peace loving man or someone who didn’t have an appetite for flesh. By contrast, the life of Jesus Christ was the most perfect and pure that has ever walked this planet. It seems to me that what you are into is a self-improvement programme; it is what you do as opposed to what a Christian receives from Christ in exchange for all his or her filth. We can do nothing to put ourselves right with God and we can do nothing to keep straight for five minutes, even after being put right. Christ has to clothe us in His Righteousness and he has to put His nature within us, in order that we have the power to change and conform to his nature. Whose nature do you want to conform to? That of Jesus Christ or Mohammed? It cannot be both, because they are mutually exclusive. I know this verse is taken out of context but Christ said “ “No one can serve two masters. Either he will hate the one and love the other, or he will be devoted to the one and despise the other.”
    David Skinner, UK

  • yes that is a problem because Mohamed is seen as the one who has perpetrated this thought and conduct and the ‘followers’ dont make it any easier because they manifest such irrational egotistical conduct beyond reason full of hatred. I am stuck between a rock and a hard place (is that the saying?) arent I. I accept your point that we have to clothed in His Righteousness and he Has to put His nature within us thus manifesting the Highest conduct in us of Love towards all.
    Siti Khatijah

  • Also I must acknowledge that Mr. Muehlenberg’s knowledge shows that he reads the Qur’an which is more than what I can say for the rest of the moslem world who dont even know or accept Jesus teachings yet proclaim him a prophet. Yes, before you point me in the right direction, i understand your point that we cannot serve two masters and I agree. This is my way of showing how highly evolved the followers of Jesus are compared to those who call themselves moslems, you have shown acceptance and nothing less than love to me yet they have shown nothing but failure in their conduc and would even persecute me for talking to you.
    Siti Khatijah.

  • Dear Siti you seem to anticipate that I am about to point you in the right direction; if that is an invitation, may I therefore point you in the direction of the Bible and for you to read it with an open but not uncritical mind. It will pose many difficulties, apparent contradictions, and challenges to our way of thinking. But with perseverance, one by one, in my experience these are resolved. One must bear in mind, however, that the Bible does not pretend to tell us everything there is to know about God and existence; our finite minds could not take it in anyway. One must view God speaking to us through his word in the same way as our attempting to communicate with ants. God tell us only what we need to know 2 timothy 3:16 says that “All Scripture is God-breathed and is useful for teaching, for reproof, for correction, and for training in righteousness.” Perhaps one of the four gospels, John, would be the best place to start, but to appreciated it fully, you have see it as the answer to the problem posed by the Old Testament.

    The internet is awash with Bible reading sites. Many Christians use this site to read its many translations: http://www.biblegateway.com/versions/index.php?action=getVersionInfo&vid=31#books
    I also use this site to give me invaluable background to the books: http://www.soniclight.com/constable/notes.htm
    Others who contribute to this site might share how they read the Bible.
    God Bless and protect you Siti.

    David Skinner, UK

  • thank you, I will. you are the 3rd person to have asked me to read John. This must be an omen. God Bless.
    Siti Khatijah.

  • I thought this may be of interest to Siti. This is from Kent Hodge of CFI http://www.cfaithministries.org , an organisation which trains up ministers of the gospel who reach out to the many moslems in Nigeria.

    Yesterday Ibrahim Idris saw a miracle, no, two miracles. Earlier this week he received a call on his mobile phone saying that if he wanted to see his father alive for the last time he should come that day to Bauchi District hospital. He was dying. Ibrahim had no money for transport so sent a message saying God is everywhere, so he can pray here in Jos as well as there, he is praying for his father. The next text he received, yesterday, said that not only was his father healed, out of the hospital and at home, but he has received Jesus Christ as his saviour. Last night the church was leaping and shouting and praising God with almost unbounded energy and joy!

    Ibrahim, a final semester student at Christian Faith Institute, Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria, is Hausa/Fulani, the son of a prominent malam, an instructor of Islamic law. His father was also at one time an emir or traditional ruler, and Ibrahim was himself a malam. He was well known and was often called on by members of the state government to create Islamic incantations or charms, and could earn 1 million naira (AUS$10,000) for each one.

    He and his brother were very sincere, diligent Islamic scholars, looking for the way of salvation. His brother learnt the whole of the Koran, in Arabic, by heart. They taught in their father’s Islamic school at Ngiri, and moved around Adamawa and Bauchi states teaching Islam. In his search Ibrahim had joined a number of different fanatical sects, one after the other, including the Shia, the Tatsine (kalkao) and the Tsiebo, who go to other countries to serve Islam, but found that every one of them somehow contradicted his holy book, the Koran, so abandoned them, eventually beginning his own Koranic school for children, attached to his house. He continued his study of the Koran, determined to find the way of salvation. In his town there were over 50 mosques according to the 1991 census, and many more now, but not a single church. If he met a Christian in his travels he would not talk to the infidel, making sure never to touch one. He avoided places they were known to be.

    Ibrahim studied Koran Surah (chapter) 3 verses 2 and 3, which states that God had formerly spoken from heaven in both the Torah (Old Testament) and the Gospels. Ibrahim had never heard of these books, had no idea they were in the Bible. He thought the Bible was an official book, like the Nigerian constitution he had seen sitting on the desk of government officials and had no idea it was the holy book of the Christians. He puzzled over what the Torah and the Gospels could be. In the same Surah of the Koran, from verse 45, comes the story of the visit of the angel to Mary, promising her a son, Jesus Christ, whom all in heaven and earth would look to, that he would be close to God, that Mary would bear the WORD. He read in the Koran that Jesus promised to take his believers back to himself in heaven, above the unbelievers, and Ibrahim began to realize that this Jesus was the way of salvation. He believed, but told no-one. He understood the consequences of knowing the truth. Everything he had understood from earliest childhood was wrong. Jesus Christ alone held the way of salvation. He knew this would cost him everything.

    Ibrahim left his town and came to Jos, to Living Springs church where after some time he was baptized and later the pastor of the church brought him to Christian Faith Institute to learn about the Bible. Ibrahim’s brother has also been saved, through reading the Koran. In the last month his mother came to Jos, although Ibrahim did not see her. During her visit she had a revelation of Christ, and is now a believer, along with her eldest daughter-in-law. No wonder there was shouting last night!

    In his home town, when they heard of Ibrahim’s conversion, the rumour spread that the Christians had paid him money to convert but his father said, “No, if he has money where is his house, where is his car? He left houses and cars in Ngiri and is now living like a small boy, with nothing. No, he converted because he is searching for truth.” Ibrahim wants to begin a church in his town full of mosques. As a scholar of Islamic law he needs to be further equipped, and when he graduates from CFI in December is planning to study law at Jos University. He cannot go back to preach Jesus from the Koran without being fully qualified and accepted in his community. When asked what value does Ibrahim see in the Koran today, he answered “It is only as a tool to introduce Moslems to Christ, apart from that, it is useless.”

    Garth Penglase

  • I find the story of Ibrahim very fascinating. This is because I am someone who believes that people have a right to what they want their lives to be. However, Ibrahim blundered by his last statement by saying the Quran is “…only as a tool to introduce Moslems to Christ, apart from that, it is useless.” This statement is stupendous, defamatory, ignoramus and inflammatory. Can you imagine how Ibrahim will feel if the gay activists say that Jesus Christ was gay (homosexual) because John was said to have been in the bosom of Christ? That is the way they make their world that is the way they see Christ, it is their world view of Christ. And for you to reach them you have to start from what they know, to what they do not know. That is the main crux of cross cultural Christian missions, which I have a first degree in at ECWA Seminary about 20 years ago. It is such derogatory classifications that brought Plateau State into religious riots which claimed over 10 000 people. I feel that the writers of this website should be holistic enough to have censored such derogatory and inflammatory remarks. And for God sake, the Quran makes meaning to those who believe in it just as the bible makes a meaning to the Christians. I feel that such statements should not be used by well meaning Christians. And for the sake of the heavens, stop inflaming unwarranted religious jingoism. These are the days of tolerance.
    Rev. Dr. Elias N. Lamle
    Leuven. Belgium

  • Thanks Elias

    We have no idea what sort of Rev you are, but if you are claiming to be a biblical Christian, then you would be aware of a few basics. The New Testament and the Koran present mutually incompatible truth claims. If Jesus and the NT are correct, and are telling us the truth, then Muhammad and the Koran are not.

    While there might be some value and some truths in all religious texts, to the extent that they contradict the message of Jesus Christ and the NT, then they must be rejected.

    It seems to me that Ibrahim has risked everything to stand up for Jesus Christ. Those who dare leave Islam are regarded as traitors, and usually face certain death. So much for tolerance.

    Indeed, these certainly are ‘the days of tolerance’. But biblical Christians are called to resist the spirit of the age, and stand up for biblical truth. The age of tolerance turns out to be a rejection of absolute truth and universal morality, and is in fact the embrace of “every man doing what is right in his own eyes” as we read about in the book of Judges – something which Scripture roundly condemns.

    Bill Muehlenberg, CultureWatch

  • Elias, I appreciate your post. However, I fail to see what is stupendous, defamatory, or ignoramus and possibly even inflammatory about this article which I have reprinted with permission, or the particular statement which you quoted.

    It is one man’s passionate journey seeking the Almighty God – not some imitation, not some religion, but a living God – and is a personal testimony to his joy in finding what he sought, and what he has a vision to do with this knowledge. When one finds truth, and that truth sets you free, one is compelled to share it with others for the freedom and joy it brings. Would it not be good news, the best of news? If you take this personal testimony and see it as inflammatory, it is far less so than the words Jesus spoke which inflamed the religious people of the time, who were very tolerant of the corruption and apostacy that they were part of and supported, and of the regime that helped them flourish, but very intolerant of the dividing word that proclaimed truth, and who rejected the concept of an personal and experiential relationship with Almighty God.

    I feel that, as Bill says, you proclaim tolerance on one hand, yet, as is common, are very intolerant of other people’s views. I would ask you, why does this offend you so, or should it offend others? Apart from the fact that far worse things are regularly said about the Bible, it is not a personal attack. Is the offense taken because the statement, if true, leads to a black and white answer, a rejection of the cultural politically correct dogma of ‘tolerance’, of exposing the lie that Allah and God are the same, that Islam is a religion of peace and truth? It leads to the question, could this be possibly true – and how much do I have to give up of my views and myself to accept it?

    Indeed these are critical questions. But please don’t pass this personal testimony off as ‘statements which should not be made by well-meaning Christians’. Surely a Christian is someone who follows the teaching of Christ. Ergo a well-meaning Christian must be someone who is motivated by love to live and proclaim the good news, which sets people free, a message clearly and repeatedly expressed by Jesus, our Lord and Saviour. May I respectfully ask, if you are not doing that, then what are you a Reverend of?

    Garth Penglase

  • Go Bill! …I “so” look forward to reading your comments…you speak the truth ….straight from your heart… just as Jesus did! What an awesome gift the Lord has given you! I am learning so much from you! I just want to ask you one question…Do you actually get time to sleep? God Bless,
    Jane Byrne

  • Bill,
    Your article says:
    “But if Islamist violence can be justified by, and found within, the main Islamic sources (the Koran, the hadith, the life and teachings of Muhammad, etc.), then only a major reform of Islam, and a new reinterpretation of it, can help to curb the violence.”
    I don’t agree.
    If the main Islamic sources are reformed or attempted to be reinterpreted so as to remove the justification for Islamist violence then it appears to me that whatever is left is not Islam.
    Why try to reform or reinterpret what is not Truth when the result of such reform or reinter[pretation will still be far removed from Truth.
    Christ’s message was available to Muhommed and he picked up bits of it but discarded most of it.
    Islam beliefs and teachings will always fall short of Christ’s message.
    As some of the posts make clear there are Islamists who are searching for a full and complete understanding of God and when they search for Truth it leads them to Christianity.
    Reform of Islam is a wasted effort.
    People of good will who have been brought up within Islam need to be encouraged to search for Truth and Faith and hopefully more will see that the search inevitably leads to Christ.
    The Islamists of violence are like evil and violent people anywhere; they are driven by the eveil and violence and whether they call themselves Islamists, Christians or any named religion the name is merely a justification for the evil and violence. For these people a reform of Islam will not make one iota of difference.
    Islam which came many centuries after Christ is a rejection of Christs teaching and His message.
    Islam should not be reformed but replaced with Christianity.
    A harsh and brutal message which doesn’t conform to the sense of eucumanism of inter faith dialogue but Christ didn’t beat around the bush either in making clear that His message is Truth.
    John Ryan

  • Thanks Jane for the kind words. Sleep? What is that? Just kidding. Yes I do manage to get some sleep. But I must say it can sometimes be hard to get to sleep when thinking about the many depressing and discouraging things happening in our world. But such worry needs to be turned into prayer of course – and into the occasional article.
    Bill Muehlenberg, CultureWatch

  • I wrote to show you that there are some good moslems and i am willing with an open mind to read the bible in fact i have also watched my favourite movie on Jesus by Franco Zaferelli,”Jesus of Nazareth”. I wanted to show you that I believe in Jesus too perhaps not in the way you would wish me too but I do believe in his teachings.I am tired of the moslems using all sorts of means towards others outside of Islam and I know that you want to spread Christianity.I respect and accept your choice . I wanted to show you that I am of peace despite being taught the Qur’an as I am a sufi and I want felicity too like you. I just did not expect you to say that the Qur’an is useless,it seems to reflect such deep hatred that the molsems also show which i am terribly sad about. At the end of the day I accept your opinion but i want to be fair to all and i want the world to achieve the felicity and peace the people so deserve.
    siti khatijah

  • “taqiyya. This is the Arabic term for deception or dissimulation. It has long been held by leading Muslim authorities that Muslims have a right to practice deception with non-Muslims if there is a conflict between faith and expediency”

    Utter non-sense. I’ve been Muslim for thirteen years, have been studying Islam since 1996, have learned Arabic, lived in Saudi Arabia, and currently reside in Jordan furthering my studies in Islamic theology and have never, not once, had to study a book, or commentary on this supposed “central”, “pivotal”, “doctrine” called Taqiyya. I recall reading some anti-Shiite material that made reference in a critical manner to a Shiite practice called Taqiya where Shiites conceal their sect when amongst Sunnis but that is about it. The charge that “Taqiyya” is a “doctrine” in Islam is itself a most loathsome form of deception.

    Surely Dr. Sookhdeo who bemoans the “thoroughly legalistic nature” of Islam can appreciate that in Sharia law it is categorically forbidden to deceive people except as a stratagem on the battle field or in order to avoid harm and death. Yet he and others take references to a legal exception (as opposed to a doctrinal tenet) and present it to readers as though it were a doctrinal tenet. It is absolutely disgusting the way scholarship can be prostituted.

    For those who are convinced that we, Muslims are bent on deceiving you: maybe we’ll tell you you have weapons of mass destruction when you don’t, maybe we’ll tell you we don’t torture when we do, let me clear the air on this point. We have no need to lie to people about our faith for it is nothing but truth and wisdom from God.

    The holy prophet Muhammad like Moses, Jesus and others between them (God bless all and grant them peace) did not teach passivism for he was not so instructed by God. We Muslims do and will fight against those so blinded by misguidance that they can do nothing but cry lies to themselves and the rest of creation. Against such souls who may come from all creeds without exception reason fails and war is the only option. If anyone doubts the wisdom in that then I’ll simply point to the plethora of publications and individuals bent to distorting the truth to serve their own worldly ends the world over and rest my case.

    Kerry Qays Arthur

  • Thanks Kerry

    You don’t need to deceive us; in your candour you so very nicely let the cat out of the bag: If we all don’t agree with you, you will simply go to war against us and kill us all. Thank you for so brilliantly making the very case that Sookhdeo was arguing for in his book.

    Bill Muehlenberg, CultureWatch

  • My God, I do not see a difference between Bill Muehlenberg and Osama Bin Ladin. They live on two opposite religious poles but share the same ideology, that is annexation of those who hold a different idea to theirs. I am not against the preaching of the “so called” truth. I am just against those who use Christianity or Islam to further their political or economic gains. People who proclaim the so called truth and yet do not live in conformity to their declaration.
    You asked to know why I felt angry. Listen carefully. I was the one that organised and funded a Christian Muslim conference in Jos in 2001 called the “Plateau Question”. However, religious bigots like you decided to deceive Governor Dariya not to listen to the yearning of these people. The conference attracted more 1000 Christian and Islamic leaders. They were ready to talk and understand each other. But fundamentalists like you did not allow the then fundamental government to listen and in the same year the Jos riot started.
    Listen again. I was there when thousands of Christian and Muslims were slain due to inflammatory utterances from fundamentalists like you. There are thousands of Muslims and Christians orphans in Plates State today. What are you doing about them in your churches? Instead, you so called church leader are busy fattening yourselves with the tithes and offerings while these widows and orphans sleep hungry. I see in you the spirit of vengeance which the Lord said belongs to Him. Can you fight for God? Is conviction based on your fundamental principles or the activities of the Holy Spirit? Tell me Christian Crusader. When your are through with annexing Muslims, will you not repeat history by turning to annex Christians as it happened in Jerusalem during the period of the crusaders. I am sure you are ignorant of these historical trajectories. Move on to some better way of delivering the GOSPEL OF PEACE not by the sword of your ego.
    It is a matter of time that your pot bellies and ‘baban riga’ will be torn open for inflaming riots that destroy God creation. Know what? The Muslims are equally Gods creation as the Christians are. Their faith should be respected, I DID NOT SAY ACCEPTED HUH. To be candid, you are very ignorant of God’s workings. You need to repent and let the mercy of God come on you so that you can follow Christ to the house of a tax collector like Zacheus. look up man? LOOK UP.
    Rev Dr. Elias Lamle, Belgium

  • Thanks Elias

    Hey what can I say about your latest comment and your earlier comment extolling the virtues of tolerance? Perhaps Dorothy Sayers can best reply: “In the world it is called Tolerance, but in hell it is called Despair, the sin that believes in nothing, cares for nothing, seeks to know nothing, interferes with nothing, enjoys nothing, hates nothing, finds purpose in nothing, lives for nothing, and remains alive because there is nothing for which it will die.”

    Bill Muehlenberg, CultureWatch

  • In your review you state: “He looks primarily at the theology and beliefs of Islam, and argues that only a major reform of Islam itself can really turn things around.”

    How likely do you believe a “major reform of Islam itself” will occur in the next couple of decades?” What is most likely to cause a “major reform”, if anything? Wouldn’t a “major reform” cause Islam to become something it is not, requiring the elimination or ignoring of major sections of the Qur’an and Hadith?

    I just discovered your web site and enjoy it very much. Thank you for your thinking and writing.

    Gerald Mucci

  • Thanks Gerald

    Yes that is the million dollar question: can Islam really be reformed? As you say, it may no longer be Islam if it does.

    Bill Muehlenberg, CultureWatch

  • Rev Dr. Elias Nankap Lamle
    I understand some of the comments you made about the student’s words concerning the Koran above. I agree it is not right to pour disrespect upon the culture or faith of another people. May I explain that the student’s answer was in respect to the Old and New Testaments being the word of God, concerning which the Koran either changes some of the historical narratives or denies some of its main teachings concerning Jesus Christ. This is the sense in which the student was speaking. I know it is not the college’s aim to show disrepect toward sincere worshippers, but to teach the truth of God for us all in Christ: that truth being that God has given Christ to save mankind from our sin by faith in Him.
    Kent Hodge

  • Reading this in November 2018.
    All of your thoughts have value to this day.
    Thank you for your efforts.

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