On Catholicism and Islam
If some folks – including many Catholics – have felt uneasy about some of the things the current Pope has said about Islam, they would be quite right to feel that way. Even allowing for a hostile secular media, when we read his actual words – sometimes from a speech, sometimes from an impromptu media interview given on an airplane, etc – we find much that is of concern.
It is not my intention here to list every worrying thing he has said and done, nor to get into a fight with my Catholic friends. And of course as a Protestant, I am quite aware of, but not bound by, notions of Popes speaking ex cathedra and so on. What is my intention is to point out a few basic truths.
One, not all Catholics are so easy going about Islam and the very real threat it poses as some are. And some Catholics are very cluey indeed as to the menace of Islam, its theological incompatibility with Christianity, and the very real problem of Islamic jihad.
To help make this discussion, I want to rely upon just one very aware and well-read Catholic, William Kilpatrick. He has written plenty on Islam, and I continually find his observations and assessments to be top-notch. Back in 2012 he wrote a superlative volume entitled Christianity, Islam and Atheism. I review it here: https://billmuehlenberg.com/2013/02/26/a-review-of-christianity-islam-and-atheism-by-william-kilpatrick/
I encourage everyone to grab a copy of this masterful book and read it carefully. He has also written scores of invaluable articles on this topic as well, and they are all well worth reading. So let me offer some of his remarks on various aspects of this.
It would be well known that in one key Catholic document, its Catechism, next to nothing is said on Islam. Indeed, we simply find one very short paragraph which many of us find far from ideal:
The Church’s relationship with the Muslims. “The plan of salvation also includes those who acknowledge the Creator, in the first place amongst whom are the Muslims; these profess to hold the faith of Abraham, and together with us they adore the one, merciful God, mankind’s judge on the last day.”
This of course is simply a quote from the 1964 Dogmatic Constitution on the Church, Lumen Gentium. So that is all we have on the issue of Islam, and many will find it theologically unsatisfactory. But I will leave theological concerns aside here, and devote my time to the rather unhelpful view of Islam itself as a political ideology. Says Kilpatrick:
It’s not at all clear that today’s Church leaders possess a … clear-eyed understanding of Islamic theology/ideology. The current outreach to Islam seems to be based more on wishful thinking than on fact. And, as Pope Francis himself observed in Evangelii Gaudium, “Ideas disconnected from realities give rise to ineffectual forms of idealism” (232).
“Ideas disconnected from realities” is a good way to describe the Church’s Islam policy. That policy does not seem to have done much to prevent persecution of Christians in Muslim lands. How about Catholics who do not live in the danger zones? Catholics who live in the West and rely on the Church for their understanding of Islam can be forgiven if they still remain complacent about the Islamic threat. That’s because there is absolutely nothing in recent official Church statements that would lead them to think that there is anything to worry about. Lumen Gentium? Nostra Aetate? The Catechism of the Catholic Church? Evangelii Gaudium? All discuss Islam, but not in a way that would raise the slightest concern. The Catholic who wonders what to think about Islamic terrorism and then consults his Catechism only to find that “together with us they adore the one, merciful God” will likely conclude that terrorists are distorting and misinterpreting their religion. Confident that the Church has spoken definitively on the matter, he’ll roll over and go back to sleep.
Conversely, Catholics who do not rely strictly on the Church for their assessment of Islam are in for a bout of cognitive dissonance. On the one hand, they know what the Church says. On the other hand, they can read the news and note the obvious discrepancy. As time goes by and as car bombings and beheadings occur at more frequent intervals in the West, dissonance is likely to be replaced by disrespect. Church officials who keep repeating the one-sided narrative about “authentic” Islam will lose credibility. Catholics won’t necessarily lose their faith, but it will be sorely tested. At the least, they will stop trusting their bishops on this issue. The trouble with “ideas disconnected from realities” is that they eventually do bump up against realities, and when they do, the bearers of those ideas lose respect. A good case can be made that Catholic leaders should pursue a policy geared toward weakening Muslims’ faith in Islam (a proposition I will discuss in the next installment), but the current policy seems more likely to undermine the faith that Catholics have in their shepherds. It’s ironic that a Catholic can get a better grasp of the Islamic threat by listening to a short speech by President el-Sisi than by listening to a hundred reassuring statements from Catholic bishops.
Like me and many others, Kilpatrick is not exactly thrilled with the notion that Christians and Muslims worship the same God. I have written on this often, eg: https://billmuehlenberg.com/2007/08/19/no-we-do-not-worship-the-same-god/
As Kilpatrick writes:
The Supreme Being as depicted in the Koran is an entirely different sort of being from the one depicted in the Judeo-Christian tradition. Although a lot of Christians like to say that “We all worship the same God,” the Koran explicitly rejects Christianity and the Christian notion of God. It does this on several occasions and in no uncertain terms. The Jesus of the Koran, for example, seems to have been introduced into it for the sole purpose of denying the claims of Jesus of Nazareth.
In any event, Muslims are not called to the imitation of the Muslim Jesus, but to the imitation of Muhammad. In Islamic tradition he is considered the perfect man, the supreme model of conduct. Just as Christians are supposed to conform their lives to Christ, Muslims are expected to conform their lives to Muhammad. Unfortunately, for those who think that religions are interchangeable, the imitation of Muhammad leads in a very different direction than the imitation of Christ. The imitation of Muhammad leads to unequal treatment of believers and non-believers, to child brides, polygamy, wife beating, stoning for adulterers, the murder of apostates, and various other, shall we say, un-American activities.
What about the naïve notion that Islam itself can somehow be reformed? Kilpatrick also demolishes this fuzzy and dangerous thinking:
Islam, not just radical Islam, is a threat to Christianity. The Muslim world can go through periods of quiescence in which Islam itself recedes into the background, but radicalism is part of the genetic structure of Islam. Any true “reform” of Islam is going to be of the “operation-was-successful-but-the-patient-died” variety. That is, if you were to eliminate all the violent, supremacist, and misogynist elements in Islam’s basic texts you wouldn’t have much left.”
Unlike what many Catholics are advocating, Kilpatrick is under no illusion as to what is the proper approach to take when it comes to Islam:
To put it bluntly (although for prudential reasons you might want to blunt your bluntness) Church policy should be aimed at weakening faith in Islam. This is the reverse of the current policy, which is built on the assumption that there is a good (authentic) Islam and a bad (inauthentic) Islam and we should therefore reinforce Muslims’ faith in “true” Islam and encourage them to go deeper into it. This, as I’ve argued before, is an impossible project. “Good” Islam and “bad” Islam are as intimately related as Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, and Mr. Hyde always predominates in the end.
Put another way, we should work at discrediting Islam just as Western leaders, clergy, and intellectuals once worked to discredit other totalitarian ideologies such as Nazism and communism. Jihad for the sake of Allah is not some unfortunate deviation from the true faith, it’s an integral part of that faith. As long as the faith is taken seriously, jihad will be taken seriously. The jihad won’t stop until the belief system that inspires it is undermined and dismantled. It is greatly in our interest that Muslims begin to take their faith less seriously. Thus, it is necessary to undertake the difficult and subtle work of discrediting Islam. Among other things, this discrediting process would involve questioning the authenticity of Muhammad’s revelation, questioning his character and reliability, and even questioning his existence.
The Christian thing to do here is to tell Muslims the truth. And the truth certainly is not that we all belong to one big happy religious family:
The objective is not to make Muslims angry, but to make them uncomfortable with their faith. If enough questions are raised, some, at least, will begin to ask the same questions. To reiterate the main point, our aim should not be to separate Muslims from radical manifestations of their faith, but to separate them from their faith—albeit gradually. The former is an impossible task because Islam is essentially a radical religion. For proof, look at Saudi Arabia, the quintessential Islamic state. It’s the most Islamic nation in the Muslim world and also the most radical. Although the Saudi government knows enough to publicly condemn the attack on Charlie Hebdo, it does not hesitate to imprison its own blasphemers. While the Saudi Ambassador was marching in the “Je Suis Charlie” rally in Paris, back in the home country a young blogger, Raif Badawi, was receiving the first 50-lash installment of his 1000-lash sentence for “insulting Islam.” Saudi Arabia also conducts amputations (for thieves) and beheadings (for apostates) on a weekly basis in public squares. Moreover, bibles, rosaries, and churches are strictly forbidden. When you encourage Muslims to go deeper into their faith, what you get is places like Saudi Arabia. Or, in the Shia Muslim world, places like the Islamic Republic of Iran.
If all of the above still seems too confrontational toward Muslims to suit ecclesiastical tastes, then Church policy should at least be redirected toward telling the truth to fellow Catholics. Right now, Catholics are being seriously misled about the nature of Islam. Popes and prelates don’t have to go around poking holes in the Islamic narrative, but neither should they be reinforcing it. The bishops don’t necessarily have to censure Islam, but they also don’t have to talk about their esteem for it, or to dwell on its (supposed) similarities to Christianity. You can express your respect for Muslims, but do you really want to express your respect for Islam?
Not all Popes have been naïve about the nature of Islam. Pope Benedict XVI for example was one of them. But the current Pope has said so many worrying things about Islam that many folks – including plenty of Catholics – are quite concerned about where he is heading with all this.
Thankfully there are Catholics like William Kilpatrick and others who can see clearly the nature of the threat we face, and how everything is not simply sweetness and light out there. More power to him.
18 Replies to “On Catholicism and Islam”
Let me offer the first comment here if I may. I have already stated that this piece is not an exercise in Catholic-bashing. Indeed, if it were, why would I be singing the praises of at least one devout Catholic? Anyone who knows anything about me knows that I have long tried real hard to avoid sectarian arguing and bashing on my site. I seek to avoid both anti-Catholic and anti-Protestant commentary here. As I have said so often before, those wishing to engage in such battles should do so elsewhere. And there are kazillions of other sites where this can be done. I try to accommodate as much as possible both camps, while always acknowledging my very real theological differences as a Protestant. So please respect what I am trying to do here. Those who are not happy to abide by my wishes and just want to blast Prots or Caths will of course not see their comments printed here. Thanks.
Well said Bill. A new reform Islam group has appeared and they sure get down to business requiring all Muslims to reject the terrible triplets you list only secular government acceptable and state that the Koran/sharia is man made.
An excellent article addressing current theories on the need to ‘reform’ Islam. As an old saying goes, “You can’t make a silk purse out of a sow’s ear!”
William Kilpatrick certainly puts to death any lingering ideas that Islam and Christianity worship the same God. There is nothing remotely similar between the loving, totally righteous yet merciful God of Judaism and Christianity, and the vengeful, petty, even demented god of Islam. Any person claiming there are similarities needs to go back to the Bible and the Qu’ran and compare the two.
Excellent article Bill, good on you. This is the best piece I have read on this particular subject of Catholicism and Islam; my wife and I thank God for you. I sincerely hope that the Catholic bishops take the time to read your article. But as I have said elsewhere: you can’t teach something to someone who knows everything. Do you email your postings to the Catholic bishops? I hope you do. If not I will endeavor to send your paper to as many as I can; with your blessing, of course, but with no guarantee that they will read it. As an aside, the God of Islam is not the God of Abraham, that is the God of Muhammad. Grace and Peace.
I once made the acquaintance of a young Muslim university student in a certain, unnamed overseas country. He posed an interesting conundrum: He had one Catholic aunt and one Protestant aunt – One of his first questions, when he found out I was a Christian, was regarding which destination I would most recommend for pilgrimage: Mecca, Rome or Jerusalem? I answered along the lines of the use of the term, “pilgrim” in 1 Peter 2:11 and Hebrews 11:13ff in the old Authorised Version rendering: i.e. the truest pilgrimage is to that Heavenly City, the City of God – not to any earthly city.
Whatever, atheists may say about reforming Christianity to conformity with Liberal Theology, it will never persuade those serious believers, who insist on a radical devotion to Jesus of Nazareth as the Lord from Heaven. In similar manner, how dare we expect serious followers of Muhammad to accept a diluted, “it ain’t necessarily so” version of the shahada their forebears risked life and limb to spread beyond the confines of the Arabian desert and heartland?
For secular Westerners, “reform” of Islam means something entirely opposite to what “reform” of Islam means for a devout Wahhabi or Salafi Muslim.
The old Hegelian Principle is at work so all roads ultimately will lead to Rome. The controversy between Christ and Satan has from the beginning always been about worship. God is particular about worship and for good reason, the adversary wants what belongs to God, in fact wants to be like God. Cain and Able were an example for us yet many Christians are happy to doubt Gods word and lightly regard His commands rationalising them for their own convenience. When Muslims say they worship Allah or God it is not the God of the Bible for Christ is God, Islam is incompatible with Bible teaching. Jesus said regarding the last days that deception would play a part and you can see much of it in the world today when it comes to religion. There is a world wide move to bring all religions together and you can be sure truth will be the trade off all in the name of getting along. With all the counterfeits of Satan with all his well tested methods of solicitation and deception it will be those that stand closely to Jesus that will see the light of truth when surrounded by darkness. Many people have fallen for the constructs of men and the devices of the devil potentially costing them eternity. The God of the Bible is the Creator, worship Him. Who’s authority will we accept God’s or men?
Bill, I am glad that you have acknowledged that not all Catholics are complacent about Islam. It is, I feel, a matter of education. Also, bearing in mind that Christians convert with love, it is necessary to open up dialogues with the individual Muslim. This can be difficult in an atmosphere of mistrust. Having said that, I agree with you that the present approach is not working very well. As an individual, i have been concerned about the effects of Islam on our country since the nineties when I first observed a media bias toward Islam and against Christianity, especially Catholicism. Having dipped into the Koran, I am struck by the similarity of the concept of this book to Adolf Hitler’s “Mein Kampf”, in terms of racio-ethnic superiority o fMuslims and Aryans and the treatment of the kaffirs and untermenschen.Serious education is needed but not of the kind to incite the violence typical of the ‘radicalised’Muslim. On a personal note, I have found Muslims I have met to be friendly, polite and, when they realise that I am a Catholic, to reassure me that they too believe in Mary (a rather incredible version) and the one God.
Just as we Christians can stray, so can Muslims. A recent turn-around that we had at our local abortion clinic was a Muslim. Sadly, for this woman, where as Bible study improves and enriches the lives of Christians, I couldn’t say that about Muslims and the Koran
Quite simple isn’t it when one meditates on the following verse? The rejection of the biblical Christ is tantamount to refusing the plan of salvation he has for humankind. Those who distort the Christ of the scriptures are more likely to end up in hell. Christ himself says this….
Luke 10:16 Jesus said, “He who hears you hears me, and he who rejects you rejects me, and he who rejects me rejects him who sent me.”
As you all may have heard, the ‘moderate’ Muslim nation of Malaysia has banned non-Muslims, especially Christians, from using Allah and other religious terms. Although a hostile act, it is also a tacit recognition by the Muslims (the Malaysian ones at least) that Allah cannot be the same deity as that of Christianity.
Please send this to Peter Westmore.
Thanks Marc. Regrettably neither he nor Byrne would pay the slightest bit of attention. They have banned me, and more incredibly, they have pulled from their website every single article critical of Islam! They pulled my pieces, as well as those of Babette Francis, Mark Durie and even George Pell, believe it or not!! Sadly BA Santamaria would be rolling in his grave over what has happened to his once excellent organisation.
Very helpful article as always, Bill. The “one Danny” (Scot) explains it all very graciously simply & fearlessly here:
Who is Peter Westmore?
Head of the National Civic Council, Sanatamaria’s old organisation.
Bill, Fr Paul Stenhouse MSC PhD, Editor of Annals, eminent church historian and Islam specialist, would have some constructive views to contribute to this discussion about how to deal with Islam.
I have known Paul Stenhouse for many years and I would be very surprised if he contributed anything to this discussion. But, if you invite him Peter, he might.
Thanks Peter and BT. I am aware of some of his pieces which are quite good, eg:
The attached article is from the pen of Richard Bennet, a converted Roman Catholic Priest. . He proves how the Roman Catholic Church promotes Islam and accepts Islamic faith. The article appears in the recent addition of the English Churchman.